What Causes Chemo Brain
Chemo brain is most commonly connected with chemotherapy, but other treatments, such as hormone therapy, radiation, and surgery may be associated with it also. These treatments can cause short-term, long-term, or delayed mental changes or cognitive problems. Beyond the chemo brain symptoms that start during and just after treatment, there are some cases where chemo brain symptoms start and continue after treatment is over. Some people with cancer have very real brain problems even though they havent had chemo.
Certain things can increase the risk of developing chemo brain or worsening brain function problems. These include:
- The cancer itself, for example brain tumors
- Other drugs used as part of treatment, such as steroids, anti-nausea, or pain medicines
- Other conditions or illnesses, such as diabetes or high blood pressure
- Having other symptoms like tiredness, pain, or sleep problems
- Emotional distress such as depression or anxiety
- Nutritional deficiencies
- Using alcohol or other substances that can change your mental state
Most of these cause short-term problems, and get better as the underlying problem is treated or goes away. Others can lead to long-lasting brain problems unless the cause is treated.
What Causes Brain Tumours
Its not known what causes brain tumours.
Occasionally people develop brain tumours because of genetic factors, or because theyve been exposed to very high doses of radiation to the head.
There is no definite link between mobile phones and brain tumours. Researchers continue to investigate the potential causes of brain tumours, including whether certain genes are important riskfactors. Read more about brain tumour research at Cure Brain Cancer Foundation.
What Are Brain Cancer Symptoms And Signs
- pins and needles sensations and/or reduced sensation of touch.
These symptoms can also occur in people who do not have brain cancer, and none of these symptoms alone or in combination can predict that a person has brain cancer. Cancer can occur in any part of the brain .
Primary cerebral lymphoma can occur but is rare so are craniopharyngiomas that are derived from the pituitary gland. A few brain cancers may produce few or no symptoms .
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Types Of Brain Tumours
Brain tumours can either be primary or secondary.
- A primary brain tumour is a tumour that has started in the brain.
- A secondary brain tumour is a cancer from elsewhere in the body that has spread or metastasised to the brain.
There are many types of brain tumours. Together with tumours of the spinal cord, they are collectively called central nervous system tumours.
Can Mobile Phones Cause Brain Tumours
There have been reports in the media about a possible connection between brain tumours and the radiofrequency energy emitted by mobile phones. RF energy produces heat, which can increase body temperature and damage tissue exposed to it.
However, it’s thought that the amount of RF energy people are exposed to from mobile phones is too low to produce significant tissue heating or an increase in body temperature.
Research is underway to establish whether RF energy has any long-term health effects, but the balance of evidence currently available suggests that it’s unlikely mobile phones cause health problems.
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What Are The Symptoms Of A Brain Tumor
The following are the most common symptoms of a brain tumor. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms vary depending on size and location of tumor. Many symptoms are related to an increase in pressure in or around the brain, except in very young children , as there is no spare space in the skull for anything except the delicate tissues of the brain and its fluid. Any tumor, extra tissue, or fluid can cause pressure on the brain and result in the following symptoms:
- Increased intracranial pressure – caused by extra tissue or fluid in the brain. Pressure may increase because one or more of the ventricles that drain cerebrospinal fluid has been blocked, causing the fluid to be trapped in the brain. Increased ICP can cause the following:
The symptoms of a brain tumor may resemble other conditions or medical problems. Always consult your child’s physician for a diagnosis.
Breast Cancer Patients Get Proton Beam Therapy On Nhs In World
Exclusive: study is first to compare pioneering targeted treatment on difficult-to-treat tumours with standard radiotherapy
Three breast cancer patients have undergone pioneering proton beam therapy for the first time on the NHS as part of a world-first trial.
The hi-tech treatment targets tumours far more precisely than conventional radiotherapy, suiting patients with difficult-to-treat growths in critical areas. The NHS has previously used proton beam therapy to treat patients with tumours in and around their brain or spinal cord.
The trial, the first of its kind globally, will compare proton beam therapy with standard radiotherapy for patients who are deemed at higher risk of long-term heart problems after radiotherapy treatment.
There is untapped potential in proton beam therapy, potentially reducing the risks of side-effects following cancer treatment, said Prof David Sebag-Montefiore, former chair of the National Cancer Research Institutes clinical and translational radiotherapy research working group.
Kim Jones, a school caterer from Ely, is the third patient to undergo proton beam therapy for breast cancer as part of the trial on the NHS. She was diagnosed in February after noticing some thickening of the skin and painful twinges in her left breast.
Jones described the treatment, in which doses of high-energy charged particles from the centre of atoms, called protons, were used to precisely target her cancer as superb and very relaxing.
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Radioprotective Drugs For Reducing Side Effects
One way to reduce side effects is by using radioprotective drugs, but these are only used for certain types of radiation given to certain parts of the body. These drugs are given before radiation treatment to protect certain normal tissues in the treatment area. The one most commonly used today is amifostine. This drug may be used in people with head and neck cancer to reduce the mouth problems caused by radiation therapy.
Not all doctors agree on how these drugs should be used in radiation therapy. These drugs have their own side effects, too, so be sure you understand what to look for.
What Are The Benefits Of Green Tea
For green tea, young leaves of the plant are harvested, withered, steamed, or pan-fried and then dried. This process helps prevent fermentation and preserves many of the beneficial compounds found in tea leaves.
Green tea has a high concentration of antioxidants, which is responsible for the beverage’s health benefits. Tea is rich in polyphenolsnatural compounds that reduce inflammation, protect against oxidative stress, and prevent cell damage.
Green tea contains high levels of natural phenols and antioxidants called catechins . Epigallocatechin-3-gallate is the most abundant catechin in green tea. ECGC has been shown to improve cardiovascular health, enhance cognitive function, promote weight loss, regulate blood sugar levels, support digestive health, and protect against certain types of cancer.
Below are the health benefits of green tea, according to research.
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What Is The Survival Rate For Brain Tumors
Survival rates are different for each type of brain tumor and vary based on your age, race and overall health. Survival rates are estimates based on averages. The five-year survival rate tells you what percent of people live at least five years after theyre diagnosed with a brain tumor. The five-year survival rates for meningioma, the most common type of benign primary brain tumor, are:
- Over 96% for children ages 14 and under.
- 97% in people ages 15 to 39.
- Over 87% in adults 40 and older.
Survival rates vary widely and depend on several factors. Talk with your healthcare provider about what to expect with your diagnosis.
Physical Emotional And Social Effects Of A Brain Tumor
A brain tumor and its treatment cause physical symptoms and side effects, as well as emotional, social, and financial effects. Managing all of these effects is called palliative care or supportive care. It is an important part of your care that is included along with treatments intended to slow, stop, or eliminate the tumor.
Palliative care focuses on improving how you feel during treatment by managing symptoms and supporting patients and their families with other, non-medical needs. Any person, regardless of age or type and stage of tumor, may receive this type of care. And it often works best when it is started right after a brain tumor diagnosis. People who receive palliative care along with treatment for the tumor often have less severe symptoms, better quality of life, and report that they are more satisfied with treatment.
Palliative treatments vary widely and often include medication, nutritional changes, relaxation techniques, emotional and spiritual support, and other therapies. You may also receive palliative treatments similar to those meant to get rid of the tumor, such as chemotherapy, surgery, or radiation therapy.
Some of the symptoms of a brain tumor can be severe and have an enormous impact on the daily lives of patients and their family caregivers. However, many symptoms can often be managed with the use of certain medications. Supportive care for people with a brain tumor includes:
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Looking For More Of An Introduction
If you would like more of an introduction, explore these related items. Please note that these links will take you to other sections on Cancer.Net:
- Cancer.Net Patient Education Video:View a short video led by an ASCO expert in brain tumors that provides basic information and areas of research.
The next section in this guide is Medical Illustrations. It offers drawings of body parts often affected by a brain tumor. Use the menu to choose a different section to read in this guide.
Problems With Thinking And Remembering Things
The drugs used to treat cancer can cause some people to have trouble concentrating or remembering things. This is often called chemo brain, and it can make it hard for cancer patients to do their jobs or everyday tasks.
Tips for coping with this problem include getting plenty of sleep, making notes of your daily plans and setting reminders on your smart phone, and focusing on one task instead of trying to do several things at the same time.
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Side Effects Of A Brain Tumour
Brain tumours may cause side effects which can have an impact on your quality of life. They can affect different parts of the brain which control different functions. This means that the effects of a brain tumour you may experience depend on the location, its size and its aggressiveness.
Find out more information about the common side effects of a brain tumour and discover some of the strategies our community has found useful to cope with them.
Qol In Brain Tumor Patients: Current Knowledge
The overall symptom burden and disability for glioma patients are significant, especially in those with high-grade or recurrent disease.3,4 Malignant glioma patients score significantly lower in all domains of functioning compared to age-matched and sex-matched healthy controls and have lower social functioning and more problems with vision, motor functions, communication, headaches, and seizures than do matched, non-small-cell lung cancer patients.5 Patients with high-grade tumors do not appear to differ in QOL between those with grade III and grade IV tumors,3,68 although perceived QOL in patients with grade III tumors may be better.9 The difference in QOL may be less dependent on the grade of tumor and more dependent on whether the tumor is stable or progressive. For example, one study found that patients with malignant gliomas with low QOL at baseline tended to deteriorate over time.10
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How Are Brain Tumours Treated
If you are diagnosed with a brain tumour, your doctor will discuss your treatment options with you. Treatment aims to either remove the tumour completely, slow its growth or relieve symptoms by shrinking the tumour.
Suggestions for treatment will be based on:
- your age, health and medical history
- the type, location and size of the tumour
- how fast the tumour is growing, and how likely it is to spread or come back
- how you may react to different therapies
You may be referred to specialists including:
The main treatments for brain tumours are:
- medications to control symptoms
In addition to standard treatments, doctors may suggest you consider taking part in a clinical trial. Clinical trials are research studies to test new treatments. Read more about clinical trials on the Cure Brain Cancer website.
Talk to your doctor about all options, their side effects and how to manage them.
For information about support options for you, your family and your carers, go to Cancer Council support information or call their helpline on 13 11 20.
The Definition Of Cancer
Cancer is a disease in which some of the bodys cells grow uncontrollably and spread to other parts of the body.
Cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body, which is made up of trillions of cells. Normally, human cells grow and multiply to form new cells as the body needs them. When cells grow old or become damaged, they die, and new cells take their place.
Sometimes this orderly process breaks down, and abnormal or damaged cells grow and multiply when they shouldnt. These cells may form tumors, which are lumps of tissue. Tumors can be cancerous or not cancerous .
Cancerous tumors spread into, or invade, nearby tissues and can travel to distant places in the body to form new tumors . Cancerous tumors may also be called malignant tumors. Many cancers form solid tumors, but cancers of the blood, such as leukemias, generally do not.
Benign tumors do not spread into, or invade, nearby tissues. When removed, benign tumors usually dont grow back, whereas cancerous tumors sometimes do. Benign tumors can sometimes be quite large, however. Some can cause serious symptoms or be life threatening, such as benign tumors in the brain.
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What Are Four Grades Of Brain Cancers
Not all brain tumors are alike, even if they arise from the same type of brain tissue. Tumors are assigned a grade depending on how the cells in the tumor appear microscopically. The grade also provides insight into the cell’s growth rate. NCI lists the following grades from benign to most aggressive :
Benign Vs Malignant Brain Tumors
Benign brain tumors arenât aggressive and normally donât spread to surrounding tissues, although they can be serious and even life-threatening. Benign brain tumors usually have clearly defined borders and usually arenât deeply rooted in brain tissue. This makes them easier to surgically remove if theyâre in an area of the brain where itâs safe to operate. But they can come back. Benign tumors are less likely to come back than cancerous ones.
Even a benign brain tumor can be a serious health problem. Brain tumors can damage the cells around them by causing inflammation and putting increased pressure on nearby tissue, as well as inside your skull.
Malignant primary brain tumors are cancers that start in your brain, typically grow faster than benign tumors, and quickly invade surrounding tissue. Although brain cancer rarely spreads to other organs, it can spread to other parts of your brain and central nervous system.
Secondary brain tumors are cancer. They come from cancer that started somewhere else in your body and spread, or metastasized, to your brain. About 1 in 4 people with cancer develop a secondary brain tumor.
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Imaging And Diagnostic Tests
Tests to diagnose brain tumours may include:
- CT scan this uses x-ray beams to take multiple pictures of the inside of your body
- MRI scan this uses magnetism and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional pictures of your body
- PET scan this test requires a small amount of radioactive solution to be injected. The cancer cells show up brighter on this scan as they absorb the solution more quickly than other cells
- lumbar puncture to collect a sample of cerebrospinal fluid
- surgical biopsy where a small piece of tumour tissue is removed under anaesthetic, to be examined
You may also have blood tests to check hormone levels and your overall health.
Some of these tests are also used to show how serious your tumour is or how quickly its growing. This is called the grade of your tumour.
These tests include:
- cerebral angiogram to examine the blood supply to the area being scanned, especially when a tumour may be deep inside the brain
How Long Do Side Effects Last
Remember that the type of radiation side effects you might have depends on the prescribed dose and schedule. Most side effects go away within a few months of ending treatment. Some side effects may continue after treatment ends because it takes time for the healthy cells to recover from radiation.
Side effects might limit your ability to do some things. What you can do will depend on how you feel. Some patients are able to go to work or enjoy leisure activities while they get radiation therapy. Others find they need more rest than usual and cant do as much. If you have side effects that are bothersome and affecting your daily activities or health, the doctor may stop your treatments for a while, change the schedule, or change the type of treatment youre getting. Tell your cancer care team about any side affects you notice so they can help you with them.
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