Functions Of The Human Brain


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Blood Supply To The Brain

Human Brain | Parts & Functions | Cerebrum & Cerebellum | Biology | LetsTute

Two sets of blood vessels supply blood and oxygen to the brain: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries.

The external carotid arteries extend up the sides of your neck, and are where you can feel your pulse when you touch the area with your fingertips. The internal carotid arteries branch into the skull and circulate blood to the front part of the brain.

The vertebral arteries follow the spinal column into the skull, where they join together at the brainstem and form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the rear portions of the brain.

The circle of Willis, a loop of blood vessels near the bottom of the brain that connects major arteries, circulates blood from the front of the brain to the back and helps the arterial systems communicate with one another.

The Structure Of The Brain

The brain is like a group of experts. All the parts of the brain work together, but each part has its own special responsibilities. The brain can be divided into three basic units: the forebrain, the midbrain, and the hindbrain.

The hindbrain includes the upper part of the spinal cord, the brain stem, and a wrinkled ball of tissue called the cerebellum. The hindbrain controls the bodys vital functions such as respiration and heart rate.

The cerebellum coordinates movement and is involved in learned rote movements. When you play the piano or hit a tennis ball you are activating the cerebellum.

The uppermost part of the brainstem is the midbrain, which controls some reflex actions and is part of the circuit involved in the control of eye movements and other voluntary movements. The forebrain is the largest and most highly developed part of the human brain: it consists primarily of the cerebrum and the structures hidden beneath it .

When people see pictures of the brain it is usually the cerebrum that they notice. The cerebrum sits at the topmost part of the brain and is the source of intellectual activities. It holds your memories, allows you to plan, enables you to imagine and think. It allows you to recognize friends, read books, and play games.

What Is The Gray Matter And White Matter

Gray and white matter are two different regions of the central nervous system. In the brain, gray matter refers to the darker, outer portion, while white matter describes the lighter, inner section underneath. In the spinal cord, this order is reversed: The white matter is on the outside, and the gray matter sits within.

Gray matter is primarily composed of neuron somas , and white matter is mostly made of axons wrapped in myelin . The different composition of neuron parts is why the two appear as separate shades on certain scans.

Each region serves a different role. Gray matter is primarily responsible for processing and interpreting information, while white matter transmits that information to other parts of the nervous system.

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How Many Brain Cells Does A Human Have

For many years, scientists thought the human brain had 100 billion nerve cells . Today, we know the actual number is closer to 86 billion.

Your brain contains two types of cells:

  • Neurons send and receive electric nerve signals.
  • Glial cells help maintain your brain, form myelin and provide nutrition to your brain.

Function Of The Brain

Functions of brain

Physiological functions of human brain involves in reception of information from the body, understanding it , and guiding the bodys reply. Brain is the maximum responsible of the thinking and motion the body generates. The human brain also mediates in vital actions such as: To breath, to control blood pressure, and to release hormones. The brain allows human being to interact successfully with the environment, by communicating and interacting with others.

Extensive of the physiological functions of the brain involve reception of information from the rest of the body, interpreting the information, and supervisory the bodys response. The main human brain functions are to keep the organism alive, so that it can interact with the environment. All the human being deliberates, feels and does is connected to specific functions of his/her brain:

Picture 3: Functions of Human Brain

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Functions Of The Two Hemispheres Of The Brain Left Brain Vs Right Brain Dominance 2022

The human brain is a complex organ that is responsible for controlling and coordinating the body’s functions and behaviors. It is divided into two hemispheres, the left and the right, which are connected by a bundle of nerve fibers called the corpus callosum. Despite having many similarities, the two hemispheres have some differences in their functions and roles in the body.

The left hemisphere is responsible for controlling the right side of the body and is often referred to as the “logical” hemisphere. It is responsible for language and communication, as well as analytical and logical thinking. This hemisphere is also involved in tasks such as reading, writing, and math. In general, the left hemisphere is more focused on verbal tasks and is responsible for processing language, both written and spoken.

On the other hand, the right hemisphere is responsible for controlling the left side of the body and is often referred to as the “creative” hemisphere. It is involved in tasks such as spatial awareness, recognition of patterns and visual images, and understanding music and art. This hemisphere is also responsible for processing nonverbal information, such as facial expressions and body language.

The Hypothalamus Manages Sensory Impulses Controls Emotions And Regulates Internal Functions

The hypothalamus is part of the diencephalon, a region of the forebrain that connects to the midbrain and the cerebrum. The hypothalamus helps to process sensory impulses of smell, taste, and vision. It manages emotions such as pain and pleasure, aggression and amusement. The hypothalamus is also our visceral control center, regulating the endocrine system and internal functions that sustain the body day to day. It translates nervous system signals into activating or inhibiting hormones that it sends to the pituitary gland. These hormones can activate or inhibit the release of pituitary hormones that target specific glands and tissues in the body. Meanwhile, the hypothalamus manages the autonomic nervous system, devoted to involuntary internal functions. It signals sleep cycles and other circadian rhythms, regulates food consumption, and monitors and adjusts body chemistry and temperature.

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Relating Structure And Function In The Human Brain: Relative Contributions Of Anatomy Stationary Dynamics And Non

  • Affiliation Laboratoire d’Imagerie Fonctionnelle, UMR678, Inserm/UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France

  • Affiliation Laboratoire d’Imagerie Fonctionnelle, UMR678, Inserm/UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France

  • Affiliation Laboratoire d’Imagerie Fonctionnelle, UMR678, Inserm/UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France

  • Affiliation Laboratoire d’Imagerie Fonctionnelle, UMR678, Inserm/UPMC Univ Paris 06, Paris, France

What Is And Where Is The Human Brain Located

Brain Anatomy and Functions | Nucleus Health

The brain role, as part of the Central Nervous System is to regulate most functions of human body, including vital functions such as heart rate or breathing, basic functions like being hungry, sleeping, or sexual instinct, also complex functions like speaking, thinking, remembering etc. The human brain is the most complex of all living constructions, processing sensory information while organizes and preserves the organisms vital functions. One trillion primary cells, i.e. neurons, work together over electrical compulsions in order to organize physical activities and mental processes that differentiate the human being from others animal species. The brain is a gelatinous mass, approximately 1.4 kg in weight, depending on the body weight and sex of each individual. There is no connection between a persons brain weight and his/her intellectual capacity.

The human brain and spinal cord are components of the Central Nervous System. The cranium and the three membranes with cerebrospinal fluid, named meninges, allow the brain to stay protected from impacts/ knocking on its four lobes:

Picture 1: Parts of the Human Brain

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What Is The Difference Between The Left And Right Brain Hemispheres

Your cerebrum divides into two halves: the left and right cerebral hemispheres. The two halves of the brain are connected by nerve fiber bundles called your corpus callosum. The right side of your cerebrum controls movement on the left side of your body and vice versa.

Your left brain hemisphere is often the dominant hemisphere but this doesnt apply to everyone. Most people who are right-handed are usually left hemisphere dominant. Some patients who are left-handed are right hemisphere is dominant. Typically, the dominant hemisphere is responsible for your speech and language functions. Your non-dominant is responsible for your spatial awareness and processing of what you see.

About 1 in 10 right-handed people and about 1 in 3 left-handed people have dominance in the right hemisphere. This means that their speech functions are mostly centered in the right side of their brains. Many times this is a normal variant but in some people with brain tumors or epilepsy, the dominance can be shifted through a process called brain plasticity.

Right Brain Left Brain

The cerebrum is divided into two halves: the right and left hemispheres They are joined by a bundle of fibers called the corpus callosum that transmits messages from one side to the other. Each hemisphere controls the opposite side of the body. If a stroke occurs on the right side of the brain, your left arm or leg may be weak or paralyzed.

Not all functions of the hemispheres are shared. In general, the left hemisphere controls speech, comprehension, arithmetic, and writing. The right hemisphere controls creativity, spatial ability, artistic, and musical skills. The left hemisphere is dominant in hand use and language in about 92% of people.

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Reasoning A Definitive Characteristics Of Human Nature

Brain images, Brain parts and functions, Brain based learning

Thinking or reasoning is performed by the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex. That is what distinguishes human beings as the most advanced creature on the planet earth.

Cognition or intellect is the capacity of human beings that enables them to challenge social or religious beliefs and verify facts.

Here it is no wonder to know that the development of knowledge in various fields, such as science, art, philosophy, mathematics, and language is solely due to the marvellous potential of your reasoning.

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Executive Functions Of The Human Brain

What are the functions of the human brain? Let us think of whatever we have done, are doing, or have to do. For example, I am writing this article. I attend the speaker of a conference or the teacher in class. I have to go shopping before the store closes. They seem like simple things to do, but each of these actions involves a series of high-level cognitive processes that allow me to carry them out, that is where the functions of the human brain comes in.

These processes are called executive functions, thanks to which we are able to act with a specific purpose.

  • Some disorders in the brain
  • The Cell Structure Of The Brain

    The brain is made up of two types of cells: neurons and glial cells, also known as neuroglia or glia. The neuron is responsible for sending and receiving nerve impulses or signals. Glial cells are non-neuronal cells that provide support and nutrition, maintain homeostasis, form myelin and facilitate signal transmission in the nervous system. In the human brain, glial cells outnumber neurons by about 50 to one. Glial cells are the most common cells found in primary brain tumors.

    When a person is diagnosed with a brain tumor, a biopsy may be done, in which tissue is removed from the tumor for identification purposes by a pathologist. Pathologists identify the type of cells that are present in this brain tissue, and brain tumors are named based on this association. The type of brain tumor and cells involved impact patient prognosis and treatment.

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    Neuroplasticity Induction With Tdcs

    Direct current stimulation of the motor cortex

    Electrical direct current was applied through a pair of saline-soaked surface sponge electrodes and delivered through a battery-driven constant current stimulator . The target electrode was fixed over the motor-cortical representation area of the right ADM as identified by TMS, and the reference electrode was placed over the contralateral supraorbital area. The distance on the scalp between the edges of the electrodes was kept at a minimum of 6cm to reduce shunting of current through the scalp. Based on the randomized condition, anodal, cathodal, or sham tDCS with 1mA intensity were applied for 7min with 15s ramp up/down at the beginning and end of stimulation. For the sham condition, stimulation was delivered for 30s, with a 30s ramp up and down. Using this procedure, participants are not able to distinguish between real and sham tDCS. We simulated electrical current flow in the head induced by this protocol to show how the primary motor cortex is affected by tDCS . The model is based on the standard head model which does not take into account potential structural differences in the brains of different chronotypes. The model should thus be taken into account for illustrative purposes only.

    MEP monitoring from TMS

    Single-pulse MEPs were obtained in the same manner as described in the previous section, and TMS intensity was set to evoke MEPs of ~1-mV peak-to-peak amplitude.

    Experimental procedure

    The Brain Stem Relays Signals Between The Brain And Spinal Cord And Manages Basic Involuntary Functions

    Neuroscience Basics: Human Brain Anatomy and Lateralization of Brain Function, 3D Animation.

    The brain stem connects the spinal cord to the higher-thinking centers of the brain. It consists of three structures: the medulla oblongata, the pons, and the midbrain. The medulla oblongata is continuous with the spinal cord and connects to the pons above. Both the medulla and the pons are considered part of the hindbrain. The midbrain, or mesencephalon, connects the pons to the diencephalon and forebrain. Besides relaying sensory and motor signals, the structures of the brain stem direct involuntary functions. The pons helps control breathing rhythms. The medulla handles respiration, digestion, and circulation, and reflexes such as swallowing, coughing, and sneezing. The midbrain contributes to motor control, vision, and hearing, as well as vision- and hearing-related reflexes.

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    Difference From The Peripheral Nervous System

    This differentiates the CNS from the PNS, which consists of neurons, axons, and . Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells have similar functions in the CNS and PNS, respectively. Both act to add sheaths to the axons, which acts as a form of insulation allowing for better and faster proliferation of electrical signals along the nerves. Axons in the CNS are often very short, barely a few millimeters, and do not need the same degree of isolation as peripheral nerves. Some peripheral nerves can be over 1 meter in length, such as the nerves to the big toe. To ensure signals move at sufficient speed, myelination is needed.

    The way in which the Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes myelinate nerves differ. A Schwann cell usually myelinates a single axon, completely surrounding it. Sometimes, they may myelinate many axons, especially when in areas of short axons. Oligodendrocytes usually myelinate several axons. They do this by sending out thin projections of their , which envelop and enclose the axon.

    Connection Between The Brain And The Heart

    The brain needs a constant supply of oxygen-rich blood to function properly. This blood is pumped to the brain by the heart through two sets of blood vessels: the vertebral arteries and the carotid arteries. The external carotid arteries run up the sides of the neck and are one location where the pulse can be felt.

    The brain is also connected to the heart, and other organs, through the vagus nerves. These nerves allow the brain to receive information about how the heart is functioning and send commands to the heart, such as how quickly it should beat.

    The brain and the heart are in constant communication to keep the body functioning.

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    The Anatomy Of The Human Brain

    We may examine the varying degrees of the structural development of the brain from its earliest to most recent evolutionary forms. The brain may be split into three parts: the brainstem, the cerebrum, and the cerebellum. For the convenience of study, the brain may be divided into three parts: the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain.

    • Hindbrain This part contains the medulla oblongata, Pons, and cerebellum.

    • Midbrain With various distinct neuron clusters , neuronal pathways, and other structures, the midbrain is a tremendously complicated structure.

    • Forebrain This part consists of the hypothalamus, the limbic system, and the cerebrum, which consists of the cerebral cortex.

    The Seat Of Consciousness: High Intellectual Functions Occur In The Cerebrum

    Functions in 2020

    The cerebrum is the largest brain structure and part of the forebrain . Its prominent outer portion, the cerebral cortex, not only processes sensory and motor information but enables consciousness, our ability to consider ourselves and the outside world. It is what most people think of when they hear the term grey matter. The cortex tissue consists mainly of neuron cell bodies, and its folds and fissures give the cerebrum its trademark rumpled surface. The cerebral cortex has a left and a right hemisphere. Each hemisphere can be divided into four lobes: the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, occipital lobe, and parietal lobe. The lobes are functional segments. They specialize in various areas of thought and memory, of planning and decision making, and of speech and sense perception.

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