The Search Strategy And The Selection Criteria
A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted through PubMed and PsychINFO databases using the following keywords: Parkinsons disease and Theory of mind. A literature search was undertaken for articles published between January 2000 and December 2012. The studies considered eligible were empirical studies written in English and published in peer-reviewed journals. The search retrieved 17 original researches and abstracts were further scrutinized to include only those reports that through the study filter. The study inclusion criteria were: studies provide the quantitative ToM data and focused in patients with PD and comparison of PD with healthy controls . Exclusion criteria were: the study topic is not ToM and studies focused on ToM in other population and with no relevant data about ToM in PD. Finally, 13 articles were included in this review.
Parkinsons Disease Brain Vs Normal Brain: Whats Different
Its not yet possible to spot the difference between a brain with Parkinsons and a normal, healthy brain on an MRI scan. However, since Lewy bodies were first found in the substantia nigra in 1927, doctors have known they are a feature of Parkinsons disease. The presence of these Lewy bodies is thought to be what separates people with Parkinsons disease from the general population. However, Lewy bodies can only be diagnosed with certainty during a brain autopsy after death.
What Are The Warning Signs
There are several warning signs that an individual with Parkinsons and depression can display. However, it is important to remember that each individual will handle his or her emotions respectively and may display different warning signs. Some things to look out for are:
- Lack of motivation to carry out daily tasks such as cleaning the house, preparing meals, etc.
- Loss of interest in hobbies that once were a priority.
- Loss of interest in socialization.
- Lack of motivation to leave the house or get out of bed.
- Loss of interest in taking his or her medication or attending routine doctors appointments.
If you or your loved one is experiencing depression, anxiety or mood changes due to their Parkinsons Disease diagnosis, it is important to seek out resources to improve their overall wellbeing. It is imperative to seek out treatment through medical professionals, support groups from the community or support through family and friends. An in-home caregiver can also help the individual affected with his or her daily tasks such as light housekeeping, medication reminders, meal preparation or simple companionship. A caregiver can be the support system that a Parkinsons patient needs in order to continue with heir prescribed medical plan and avoid regression. With the proper medication, support and professional supervision, an individual with Parkinsons can improve his or her mental state and live a happy, healthy and prosperous life.
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Symptoms Of Parkinsons Disease
Parkinsons has four main symptoms:
- Tremor in hands, arms, legs, jaw, or head
- Muscle stiffness, where muscle remains contracted for a long time
- Slowness of movement
- Impaired balance and coordination, sometimes leading to falls
Other symptoms may include:
The symptoms of Parkinsons and the rate of progression differ among individuals. Early symptoms of this disease are subtle and occur gradually. For example, people may feel mild tremors or have difficulty getting out of a chair. They may notice that they speak too softly, or that their handwriting is slow and looks cramped or small. Friends or family members may be the first to notice changes in someone with early Parkinsons. They may see that the persons face lacks expression and animation, or that the person does not move an arm or leg normally.
People with Parkinson’s disease often develop a parkinsonian gait that includes a tendency to lean forward take small, quick steps and reduce swinging their arms. They also may have trouble initiating or continuing movement.
Symptoms often begin on one side of the body or even in one limb on one side of the body. As the disease progresses, it eventually affects both sides. However, the symptoms may still be more severe on one side than on the other.
Ways To Decrease The Risk Of Parkinsons And Alzheimers
There is currently no cure for either disease. Parkinsons is considered a more treatable condition, however, especially in the early stages of the disease. Treatments include medication, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications such as dietary changes. Research continues to suggest that a brain-healthy lifestyle can help prevent both Alzheimers and Parkinsons. Here are some basic guidelines:
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Who Does It Affect
The risk of developing Parkinsons disease naturally increases with age, and the average age at which it starts is 60 years old. Its slightly more common in men or people designated male at birth than in women or people designated female at birth .
While Parkinsons disease is usually age-related, it can happen in adults as young as 20 .
What Are The Symptoms
The best-known symptoms of Parkinson’s disease involve loss of muscle control. However, experts now know that muscle control-related issues aren’t the only possible symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.
Motor symptoms which means movement-related symptoms of Parkinsons disease include the following:
Additional motor symptoms can include:
- Blinking less often than usual. This is also a symptom of reduced control of facial muscles.
- Cramped or small handwriting. Known as micrographia, this happens because of muscle control problems.
- Drooling. Another symptom that happens because of loss of facial muscle control.
- Mask-like facial expression. Known as hypomimia, this means facial expressions change very little or not at all.
- Trouble swallowing . This happens with reduced throat muscle control. It increases the risk of problems like pneumonia or choking.
- Unusually soft speaking voice . This happens because of reduced muscle control in the throat and chest.
Several symptoms are possible that aren’t connected to movement and muscle control. In years past, experts believed non-motor symptoms were risk factors for this disease when seen before motor symptoms. However, theres a growing amount of evidence that these symptoms can appear in the earliest stages of the disease. That means these symptoms might be warning signs that start years or even decades before motor symptoms.
Non-motor symptoms include:
Stages of Parkinsons disease
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How Are Cognitive Changes In Pd Different Than Alzheimers Disease
Overall, dementia produces a greater impact on social and occupational functioning in PD than Alzheimers due to the combination of motor and cognitive impairments.
There is some overlap between symptoms and biological changes seen in Alzheimers and PD. However, it is less likely for both disorders to occur at the same time. Development of dementia in people with PD represents progression of the disease, usually after several years of motor impairment.
Dementia may or may not occur in people with PD. According to recent research, 30% of people with Parkinsons do not develop dementia as part of the disease progression.
How Is Parkinsons Disease Treated
If a doctor thinks a person has Parkinsons disease, theres reason for hope. Medicine can be used to eliminate or improve the symptoms, like the body tremors. And some experts think that a cure may be found soon.
For now, a medicine called levodopa is often given to people who have Parkinsons disease. Called L-dopa, this medicine increases the amount of dopamine in the body and has been shown to improve a persons ability to walk and move around. Other drugs also help decrease and manage the symptoms by affecting dopamine levels. In some cases, surgery may be needed to treat it. The person would get anesthesia, a special kind of medicine to prevent pain during the operation.
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Is There A Parkinson’s Disease Brain Scan
MRI brain scans and single photon emission computed tomography scans are often performed to rule out other causes of your symptoms, including strokes or a brain tumor. However, neither of these scans are diagnostic of Lewy bodies. There is no Parkinson’s disease brain scan, and no tests can conclusively show that you have Parkinson’s disease.
APA ReferenceSmith, E. . How Parkinsons Disease Affects the Brain, HealthyPlace. Retrieved on 2022, December 20 from https://www.healthyplace.com/parkinsons-disease/effects/how-parkinsons-disease-affects-the-brain
Caffeine Nicotine And Parkinsons Disease Risk
Many studies have confirmed the link between dietary caffeine consumption and decreased risk of PD. Scientists are actively studying how caffeine and other substances in coffee and tea lower a persons risk of PD. More recent studies show that increased coffee intake is associated with a lower risk of PD in people with certain genetic backgrounds, namely a mutation in the LRRK2 gene. There is more to learn about the neuroprotective substances in coffee and tea. In the meantime, drinking coffee and tea in moderation is low risk and may have positive effects on the brain.
The risk of developing Parkinsons disease is lower in smokers vs. nonsmokers. From several studies, it is not clear that nicotine, one of the active components in tobacco, is neuroprotective. Another theory is that people who develop PD are less likely to smoke or become addicted to nicotine. In any case, current research may lead to new treatments based on the relationship between smoking and Parkinsons disease.
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How Tom Affect Pd Patients In Daily Living
Studies have explored the impact of cognitive and affective ToM dysfunction on real life especially the quality of life . Both studies used the PD questionnaire to measure the health-related QoL. Bodden et al. first found a significant correlation between total PDQ-39 score and measures of affective but not cognitive ToM among patients with advanced stage PD . Subsequently, Santangelo and colleagues excluded depressed PD patients and included early stage patients in order to explore this issue, and their results showed that cognitive ToM was associated with 2 domains, social support and cognitive deficits subscales, of PDQ-39. Therefore, it was suggested that defects in the cognitive aspect of ToM might have a more negative impact on QoL compared to the affective component. Taken together, these findings imply that ToM plays an important role in daily living and affects QoL. However, more research is still needed to explore the impact of ToM on real life and social interactions.
Advancement In Parkinsons Disease
With the progress of Parkinsons disease with time, symptoms associated with the problem become worse typically and many new problems emerge. Despite patients receive benefits with the intake of anti-Parkinson medication the benefit fails to last for a long time even when they intake it frequently.
Most of the patients usually experience involuntary movements to make them, as looking fidgety when they intake the medicine and otherwise works the best. Hence, it is very much essential to emphasize such movements typically and do not bother about the condition of patients too much.
Other problems, which may take place with the progress of Parkinsons disease, are-
- Problems associated with balance and gait, along with falls
- Difficulty in communication or impairment of speech
- Difficulty in swallowing
- Cognitive impairment, such as memory and thinking
- Behavioral problems
Some of the problems are of very much difficult to treat with medicines. However, any experienced doctor or a neurologist specializes in movement disorder will still may provide the necessary support and guidance for patients even during the advanced phases of the Parkinsons disease.
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What Medications Are Used To Treat Parkinsons Disease
Medications are the main treatment method for patients with Parkinsons disease. Your doctor will work closely with you to develop a treatment plan best suited for you based on the severity of your disease at the time of diagnosis, side effects of the drug class and success or failure of symptom control of the medications you try.
Medications combat Parkinsons disease by:
- Helping nerve cells in the brain make dopamine.
- Mimicking the effects of dopamine in the brain.
- Blocking an enzyme that breaks down dopamine in the brain.
- Reducing some specific symptoms of Parkinsons disease.
Levodopa: Levodopa is a main treatment for the slowness of movement, tremor, and stiffness symptoms of Parkinsons disease. Nerve cells use levodopa to make dopamine, which replenishes the low amount found in the brain of persons with Parkinsons disease. Levodopa is usually taken with carbidopa to allow more levodopa to reach the brain and to prevent or reduce the nausea and vomiting, low blood pressure and other side effects of levodopa. Sinemet® is available in an immediate release formula and a long-acting, controlled release formula. Rytary® is a newer version of levodopa/carbidopa that is a longer-acting capsule. The newest addition is Inbrija®, which is inhaled levodopa. It is used by people already taking regular carbidopa/levodopa for when they have off episodes .
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Cognitive impairment can occur due to stress, particularly if the patient feels they are a burden to their caregiver, are experiencing a decline in daily functioning, have a worsening quality of life, are dealing with rising medical costs, or are concerned about their mortality.
According to the National Parkinson Foundation, some of the common cognitive issues people living with Parkinsons disease face include:
- Slowness of thinking
- Struggling to find the right words in conversations
- Lack of reasoning skills
Some Parkinsons disease medications can help with areas such as motivation and concentration, but there are no medications that can improve memory function.
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Parkinsonss News Today is strictly a news and information website about the disease. It does not provide medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. This content is not intended to be a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, or treatment. Always seek the advice of your physician or another qualified health provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Never disregard professional medical advice or delay in seeking it because of something you have read on this website.
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Mimicking Human Conditions In Animal Models
With the advance of the medical research, it is possible to mimic certain human conditions in selected animals, such as mouse or rat, to study the development of a disease and search for treatment. In addition to being very close to the human physiology, these animal models are reliable and critical to develop new treatment strategy and to understand the pathophysiology of a disease.
In the laboratory of Professor Musa V. Mabandla, we have by exposing pups to early maternal separation once daily, from post-natal day 1 to 14. We thereafter injected these rat models with depressive-like behaviors with a preclinical dose of 6-hydroxydopamine stereotaxically into the medial forebrain bundle to mimic Parkinsonism. This has resulted to a rat model of PD associated with depressive-like behaviors.
We also injected these animal models with Fluvoxamine maleate , an antidepressant widely used for the treatment of psychiatric disorders, to investigate the neuroprotective effects of the drug on a parkinsonian rat model of neurodegeneration.
Our findings show that early maternal separation exacerbated the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine, but FM treatment attenuated neurodegeneration associated with 6-hydroxydopamine toxicity.
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How Parkinsons Disease Affects The Body
Life with Parkinsons is challenging, to say the least. This progressive disease starts slowly, and because theres currently no cure, it gradually worsens how you think and feel.
Giving up may seem like the only solution, but it certainly isnt. Thanks to advanced treatments, many people are able to continue living healthy, productive lives with Parkinsons.
Take a glance at this infographic to get a visual picture of how Parkinsons can affect everything from your memory to your movement.
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How Does Pd Affect Dopamine
Doctors believe that PD affects the brains ability to create dopamine.7 Since the brain cannot produce the dopamine it needs, a persons movement begins to be affected. PD can also cause other symptoms as the brain begins to create less dopamine.8
People with PD can have issues with sleep, depression, and blood pressure. Younger people with PD can also have issues with impulse control.9 As you can see, these are all related to the parts of the brain that create dopamine. Doctors are not sure why this happens, or what causes PD.
PD causes the neuron cells in the substantia nigra to break down and die. People with PD have 80 percent fewer dopamine-producing cells in their substantia nigra than people without PD have.7
Doctors are not sure why this happens. If doctors can figure out why PD causes the brain to stop producing dopamine, they think they may be able to find a better treatment for PD.
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